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Crown of St Stephen: 12th century

From about 1110 a tradition develops in Hungary concerning the coronation of the nation's first king, Stephen I. The event takes place in the year 1000 or 1001, and it is said that pope Sylvester II shows special favour to the Hungarians by sending a crown for the occasion. The crown survives as a sacred relic, symbolizing the birth of Hungary as a Christian nation and the sanctity of its first ruler.

Historians doubt whether there is any factual basis for the story. The crown, of Byzantine origin, seems to date from about 1075. However the mantle, cap and sword used in the coronation survive, and all are considered authentic.

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