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c. 850
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
The caliphs in Baghdad begin to employ Turkish slaves, or Mamelukes, in their armies      
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
Togrul Beg enters Baghdad and is granted by the caliph the title of sultan, which becomes hereditary in his Seljuk dynasty       
Narrative history in HistoryWorld      
Saladin deposes the Fatimid caliph and brings Egypt back to orthodoxy, acknowledging the rule of the Sunni caliph in Baghdad        
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
When Hulagu and his Mongol army reach Baghdad, in 1258, it is said that 800,000 of the inhabitants are killed - and the caliph is kicked to death       
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
The last Abbasid caliph, captured by the Ottoman Turks, is taken as a prisoner to Istanbul - ending the authentic line of 'successors' to Muhammad       
from 1517
Narrative history in HistoryWorld   
From Bosnia to Egypt and Arabia, the Ottoman Turks now rule the largest Muslim empire since the early caliphate - and will frequently use the title of caliph to assert their authority within Sunni Islam